Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.[14] This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.[15] Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft.

Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people.[6] Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC.[7] The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire.[8] The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes[9] and some were also covered with lead. Lead was also used for piping and for making baths.[10]


Clogged drains or sewer line backups can wreak havoc on your business, and we know that plumbing emergencies rarely align with business hours. Sudden, unexpected plumbing emergencies can have a serious negative impact on your business—any amount of downtime can result in missed opportunities and the inability to serve your clients, potentially leading to lost revenue. When plumbing emergencies occur at your place of business, you need an emergency plumber you can trust.
If you need your boiler serviced, call today or fill out our online request form! We will schedule an appointment that’s convenient for you and come with a fully stocked truck to repair any boiler problem that you have. We can even replace an existing boiler or install a boiler in your home the same day. Our friendly customer service representatives are ready to take your call now.
Don R. is a “Superstar”! He quickly identified the outdated timer attached to our water that was malfunctioning, as it was making a very annoying grinding sound. He disconnected the timer and rerouted the power cable to the water heater. The problem was solved instantaneously. Moreover, Don had provided us with some useful information that we deemed valuable as well. Don, we truly appreciate your top notch service.P.S. You have restored peace back into my household.
The difference between pipes and tubes is simply in the way it is sized. PVC pipe for plumbing applications and galvanized steel pipe for instance, are measured in IPS (iron pipe size). Copper tube, CPVC, PeX and other tubing is measured nominally, which is basically an average diameter. These sizing schemes allow for universal adaptation of transitional fittings. For instance, 1/2" PeX tubing is the same size as 1/2" copper tubing. 1/2" PVC on the other hand is not the same size as 1/2" tubing, and therefore requires either a threaded male or female adapter to connect them. When used in agricultural irrigation, the singular form "pipe" is often used as a plural.[19] 

"lead hung on a string to show the vertical line," early 14c., from Old French *plombe, plomee "sounding lead," and directly from Late Latin *plumba, originally plural of Latin plumbum "lead (the metal), lead ball; pipe; pencil," a word of unknown origin, related to Greek molybdos "lead" (dialectal bolimos) and perhaps from an extinct Mediterranean language, perhaps Iberian.
Whether you're unclogging drains with your handy drain snake, installing a sprinkler system or solving drainage problems, Lowe's has everything you need to make your plumbing project a success. From toilets, toilet repair, water heaters and filtration systems to faucets, metal pipes and fittings or plastic pipes and fittings, we're here to help. We’ll help make sure that pipe dreams aren’t as impossible as they seem with the right PVC pipe, PVC pipe fittings, PEX pipe and fittings and pipe connectors. We’ve got everything you need to get your water where you need it with our selection of septic tanks, water pumps, submersible pumps and irrigation pumps. And we also carry sump pump check valves to make sure that discharge water doesn’t flow back into your sump system. Check out our how-to articles and videos for step-by-step guides on do-it-yourself tasks. Get started on transforming your home into a safe, energy-efficient spot for the whole family.
My hot water heater needed replacement. Deanna was very pleasant, knowledgeable, and most helpful. She scheduled my appointment and James M. and Aaron arrived exactly on time. They were professional and had the job done in no time! Although it was a bit more expensive than I was expecting, the service was excellent. Thank you for a job well done.
 My hot water heater needed replacement. Deanna was very pleasant, knowledgeable, and most helpful. She scheduled my appointment and James M. and Aaron arrived exactly on time. They were professional and had the job done in no time! Although it was a bit more expensive than I was expecting, the service was excellent. Thank you for a job well done. 

Wall thickness does not affect pipe or tubing size.[20] 1/2" L copper has the same outer diameter as 1/2" K or M copper. The same applies to pipe schedules. As a result, a slight increase in pressure losses is realized due to a decrease in flowpath as wall thickness is increased. In other words, 1 foot of 1/2" L copper has slightly less volume than 1 foot of 1/2 M copper.[citation needed]
Whether your son just flushed his favorite plastic car down the toilet or your water heater is no longer providing enough hot water for your household needs, Lindstrom Plumbing offers you courteous, experienced, licensed by the State of Florida, trust certified plumbers.  We’ll arrive on-time in a clean uniform and clean up before we leave. We can repair, maintain or improve your plumbing system and our plumbing service includes a 100% money back guarantee, along with customer care policies that are unmatched in the industry. When you need the best plumbers in the Fort Lauderdale area, you can always count on Lindstrom Plumbing!
The Fluidmaster 7514 Extra Thick Reinforced Wax Toilet The Fluidmaster 7514 Extra Thick Reinforced Wax Toilet Bowl Gasket with Flange and Bolts is a superior solution for securing and sealing your toilet to floor. This complete wax ring kit includes reinforced and extra thick wax ring with flange extra-long brass bolts and is packaged in tray to maintain ...  More + Product Details Close
Atomic Plumbing & Drain Cleaning provided Expert Plumber Jimmy Powell to diagnose and perform an emergency repair at my home. I had experienced flooding from poor workmanship by one of their competitors, who then refused to help me. When I contacted Atomic Plumbing with an emergency request, they stepped up immediately to assist me, and sent their plumber Jimmy P., who identified and corrected the poor workmanship that caused the flooding. Very knowledgeable in his trade, confident in the correction that he crafted, and he is a genuine good person. I would have been pleased with that much, but the reasonable price for the emergency work and the 1 year warranty that Jimmy presented on behalf of Atomic Plumbing brought it all home for me. This is a company that stands behind their good name and will send you the very best plumbing professionals when you are having a bad plumbing day. I am so glad that I contacted Atomic and met Jimmy. You will be too. Call Atomic Plumbing FIRST!

Clogged drains or sewer line backups can wreak havoc on your business, and we know that plumbing emergencies rarely align with business hours. Sudden, unexpected plumbing emergencies can have a serious negative impact on your business—any amount of downtime can result in missed opportunities and the inability to serve your clients, potentially leading to lost revenue. When plumbing emergencies occur at your place of business, you need an emergency plumber you can trust.


We had a leak under the kitchen sink & called Atomic Plumbing. They sent someone over that same day. They sent an email appointment confirmation & kept us posted both via email & telephone on the status of our appointment & expected arrival of the plumber. Our plumber was Don Richards. He was very pleasant and professional. He used protective covering on his shoes & went over the cost of the repair. He fixed the leak in no time and did not leave a mess at all. Very impressive. Thanks for the outstanding service Atomic Plumbing!
Garbage disposers usually come with an Allen key. Find a good place to store it, and when the disposer jams, you can follow the directions in the owner’s manual to fix it yourself. It’s as simple as inserting and twisting, and doing this yourself will save you the hassle and cash of a service call to the plumber. Speaking of tool storage, check out these clever tool storage ideas.

If you decide to try this job yourself, be prepared to keep meticulous track of about a dozen tiny parts (put the stopper in the sink so none of them fall down the drain). There are many different faucet designs, so you may not be able to tell what to replace until you've done the disassembly. Whether you do it yourself or hire a plumber, this would be a good time to think about whether you want to upgrade the faucet with a new design.
Justin D and Eric worked on four leaky spots in one afternoon replacing toilet parts, bathroom sink fixtures, shower fixtures and an ancient outdoor spigot that required going into the crawl space. All were done efficiently and with detailed explanations. Additionally, each work area was left completely cleaned up. I appreciate that they also alerted me to a duct work problem under the house which I may not have discovered for some time. My parents, also customers, and I are happy to give a big thumbs up to Atomic Plumbing. Thank you Justin D and Eric! Good team!
Whether you need basic plumbing maintenance, or are looking to hire a plumber to create your dream kitchen—or bath, Amazon Home Services has listings of the best professional plumbers to help get you there. Sit back, and let an expert take care of the Clogged Drain Repair, Garbage Disposal Replacement, Showerhead Replacement, Leaky Faucet, Sink Replacement, or Toilet Replacement—and watch your kitchen and bath dreams come to life.
Payment schedule: On a big job, especially a planned remodeling, the service provider may want the customer to pay 10 to 15 percent of the cost up front and 50 percent paid before the job is completed — especially if expensive materials need to be purchased for the project. Make sure you know what is expected. If you're suspicious, contact your state's professional licensing board or contracting board to ask about local standards. Many states set limits on what is allowed to be paid upfront.
For many centuries, lead was the favoured material for water pipes, because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape. (Such use was so common that the word "plumbing" derives from plumbum, the Latin word for lead.) This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality. Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards.[13]
Galvanized steel potable water supply and distribution pipes are commonly found with nominal pipe sizes from 3⁄8 inch (9.5 mm) to 2 inches (51 mm). It is rarely used today for new construction residential plumbing. Steel pipe has National Pipe Thread (NPT) standard tapered male threads, which connect with female tapered threads on elbows, tees, couplers, valves, and other fittings. Galvanized steel (often known simply as "galv" or "iron" in the plumbing trade) is relatively expensive, and difficult to work with due to weight and requirement of a pipe threader. It remains in common use for repair of existing "galv" systems and to satisfy building code non-combustibility requirements typically found in hotels, apartment buildings and other commercial applications. It is also extremely durable and resistant to mechanical abuse. Black lacquered steel pipe is the most widely used pipe material for fire sprinklers and natural gas.
A commercial plumbing system is going to see a level of use and present certain challenges that a residential system won't. That is why it is so necessary that you schedule your commercial plumbing services with qualified professionals well-versed in the installation and servicing of this particular type of equipment. When you work with the commercial plumbers in our employ, you can count on your systems to be properly sized for your needs, your water heater running reliably, and that your plumbing system in general will satisfy your requirements. Give us a call to learn more about all that our commercial plumbing professionals can do for you.
Wall thickness does not affect pipe or tubing size.[20] 1/2" L copper has the same outer diameter as 1/2" K or M copper. The same applies to pipe schedules. As a result, a slight increase in pressure losses is realized due to a decrease in flowpath as wall thickness is increased. In other words, 1 foot of 1/2" L copper has slightly less volume than 1 foot of 1/2 M copper.[citation needed]
Plumbers install and repair water, drainage, gas, and other piping systems in homes, businesses, and factories. Plumbers install plumbing fixtures such as bathtubs and toilets, and appliances, such as dishwashers and water heaters. Plumbers also maintain septic systems—the large, underground holding tanks that collect waste from houses that are not connected to a sewer system. Click Here for Plumber Repair Denver
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